klima1Forests ensure the conditions of human life. The impact of climate change on our forests and on silviculture must therefore seriously be considered. In some parts of Earth, these effects can improve the living conditions of the forests, e.g. the growth of trees can accelerate, the diversity of the forests can increase etc. However, in other places, warming, drying and other climatic changes can lead to the disappearance of species, the increase of loss caused by pests and disturbances,  the deterioration of the forest composition and functioning, and even the disappearance of some forests. On the whole, due to the overall impact of climate change, the useful role of forests to regulate essential global processes may be reduced that in turn can further escalate the effect of climate change. A considerable part of forests in Hungary are already thriving on the edge of their distribution in the so-called forest-steppe climate zone. Warming and drying climate so far has already hampered the survival and regeneration of forests even in Klima3these and the adjacent, still drought tolerant forest types. In the future, even a small degree of warming may render unsustainable both forestry, and the existence and social services of the forests in these areas. All this is happening in an era when we increasingly realize our dependence on forests. This dependence not only manifests itself in  directly percievable services like biomass-based power generation, for which we will increasingly rely on sustainable timber production, but also in less directly obvious services like removing excessive amounts of carbon from the air. Due to the well-known natural and social trends, the human pressure on forests Klima4is likely to significantly increase in the near future. We have a strong interest in the forests’ survival, but how to ensure it? The rich forest ecosystems are of high adaptability but they are no longer able to keep abreast with the speed of human induced climate change. It appears necessary to take an active intervention in order to help the adequate conversion and maintenance of forests. It is not yet clear exactly what kind of interventions, and on what scale, should be considered. Based on the lessons that we learned from studying evolution, the conservation and careful expansion of the diversity of forest species and landscape seem to be among our key tasks. It is vitally important to actively select tree species (and perhaps varieties) that are more adaptable to site conditions and climate change, and to apply natural regeneration where possible. In klima2order to do this we should be more familiar with site conditions and their change due to climate change. In some areas it is possible that we will need to plant new varieties or species. It also seems important to continuously monitor new pests, pathogens, vectors and the health of forests, as well as to prevent forests from the spreading of undesirable species through international trade. The development and putting into practice of measures to protect forests from the increasingly threatening forest fires should be considered more seriously. Where possible, we have to put less pressure on forests by cutting less and reducing other direct human impacts. In addition, more afforestations should be conducted with the very purpose to sequester carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas that is deemed to be so much responsible for climate change. Silviculture should also be developed and made more close-to-nature. However, all the above assumes that we know much more about forests and about the effects of some human activities. Therefore, forest research must be carried on much more intensively in the future.