Ultet1Plantation forestry and related forms of farming are inseparable from the rational sustainment and exploitation of natural resources, from the utilization of wastelands either through afforestation or by means of establishing different plantations. One of the most obvious ways to realize successfully these objectives on several hundred thousand ha is a professional exploitation of this kind of timber production that will take into account ecological, growing technological and economic aspects. There are two important fast growing tree species and cultivar groups (black locust and poplars) which can be used for timber production of higher quality. These species cover 34% (600 thousand ha) of the total forested area. Their importance will grow in the coming decades of the afforestation programme. Consequently, through the afforestation of wastelands of approximately 720 thousand ha, their rate may reach 35-40 % that means that the total forested area of Hungary may grow up to 23-24 %. There are Ultet2four most important characteristics of plantation forestry and those of the associated R & D fields: Pre-determined target assortments and primary forest products of large quantity and of equal quality will be produced. System-oriented technology which mostly implies intensive cultivations, where all operations are predictable. Much shorter growing period compared to that of close-to-nature forests, owing to the special elements of growing technology (fast growing tree species, varieties, plantation technologies). The economic Ultet3objective of production is a higher net income in a short period of time. With regard to their increasing significance in the future, short rotation (energy) plantations should be mentioned here, whose primary purpose is dendromass (biomass) production of greater amount. Only the sites of high productivity can fulfil this requirement where high-quality timber production is also a real alternative. Ownership interests will play a determining role in the choice of growing technology.