Basic research within tree improvement research comprises three main fields. First the improvement of fast growing tree species with special regard to tasks related to forestation and to the establishment of plantations. Second the genetic tests of species grown by generative Nem1propagation (Scots pine, spruce, black pine, European larch) for resistance to diseases and adaptability (provenance and progeny tests). Third the concerning cultivars grown by vegetative propagation, supply with starting propagation material, cultivar maintenance, survey and development of black poplars genetic resources. These studies serve the interest of tree breeding and fill the purpose of close-to-nature silviculture, thus, carrying on research will be necessary in the future, and can be expanded on other native poplars and genetic survey of groups of tree species that can be characterized by different pollination, stand-forming, and regeneration strategies (comparison of stand-forming species – mixture, species pollinated by wind). Our current tasks are to understand the genetic diversity of native tree species in the Nem2interest of conservation of genetic resources and to analyze the genetic relations of adaptability to environmental conditions. It is necessary to assist in developing strategies of gene conservation cooperating with the Forestry Work Committee of the Plant Gene Bank Council. Other current research topics are: analysis of the genetic value of propagation material resources; development of propagation material resources that are approved and certified by provenance tests; assistance in the establishment of gene reserves network and updating managing principles of seed crop stands on the basis of experiments; collaborative research on the impact of silviculture and that of forest degradation processes on the genetic structure of forest stands; coordination of scientific activities in arboretums managed by the Department (Sárvár; Szombathely-Kámon); working out maintenance; management, and development plans in cooperation with the competent authority; as regards tree species grown by vegetative propagation, production of new varieties and putting them into practice are still a priority.